Ganja is second largest city and industrial centre of Azerbaijan (population-about 300,000). It is located in the Ganja river to the South-West from Baku . The area is famous for the Kapaz mountain and the 7 lakes near it, particularly the Geygel lake.
From ancient times till the XI- century the city was an original town which was founded in the V-th century and was one of the centres of Christianity of the Caucasus . In the XII-th century after an earthquake in 1139 , Ganja was destroyed .But in the next centuries it became an important trade centre in the Great Silk Route. Since XIII c. , Ganja was part of the Persian Empire and since 1606 was as the capital of a Ganja Khanate. Russian troops defeated Persian forces here in 1826. For some time in 1918 Ganja was the provisional capital of first independent Azerbaijan. From 1804 to 1918 the city was named as Elizavetspol and then regained the initial name-Ganja.
The city is the birthplace of the great poet of the XII century Nizami Ganjavi and many other prominent figures of science and culture of Azerbaijan. Today there are a University, Academy of Sciences, Medical School and the Pedagogical Institute. The grand city hall with its immense colonnade located in a park south of the main square. Tourists should to see Shah Abbas mosque(XVII c.) with the two tall minarets and the dome with interesting decoration. Another landmark is the building of the first Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.Near the Parliament building is a large urban park, behind which are the remains of the fortress (XVI c.). Currently Ganja owns plants for the production of steel and porcelain, silk and shoes, as well as the rich agricultural lands for the food industry.
|Where to stay|
High class hotels:
Hotel "Ramada" 5 *
Tourist class hotels:
Hotel "Ganja" 3 * and hotel «My way" 3 * in Ganja city center
Hotel "Lux" 2 * and hotel "Kapaz" 1 *
|Where to go on a tour or to hike|
1. City tour (3 hours) with visit the main attractions of Ganja :
2. Excursion trip to the memorial "Imam Zadeh"( located in the Zazaly village)
3. Excursion trip to the Gey - Gel city-who is a former German colony - Helenendorf and inspection of architectural buildings, streets, a Lutheran church and the factory of production well-known varieties of local wine and cognac
4. Excursion trip to the Adjikend (resort village) with an overview of the rock mass Kapaz
5. Excursion trip to the ancient city - Shamkir (in XIX-XX centuries it was named as Annenfeld,because in this settlement was located colony of German settlers)
6. Excursion trip from Ganja to the ancient city of Barda with survey:
- The ruins of an ancient fortress "Nushaba galasy"
- The mausoleum of "Allah-Allah"
- Religious and memorial complex "Imam Zadeh"
- The ruins of an ancient bridge
- The local museum and other facilities
7. Jeep Safari tour to the ruins of ancient chapel of the Caucasus Albania (located on the top of mountains (h=2 108 m.)- near the Adjikend village)
|Direction and distance from Baku in km.|
By auto road: by buses , minibuses or passenger cars
Baku - Ganja = about 370 km.
Length of routes within the region:
Ganja - Naftalan = about 60 km.
Ganja-Gey Gel = 12 km.
From Baku by rail:
- Baku-Yevlakh-Ganja is about 10 hours
Flights and transfers
Flight: Baku - Ganja is offered daily. Flight time is approximately 40-50 minutes
|Monuments of history and architecture|
1. Architectural monuments of Ganja:
- the building the Governor's of the former city Yelizavetpol ( now -Ganja )
- the building of the former Real School (1883)
- the building of the State Puppet Theatre (a former Lutheran Church XIX c.),
- the buildings of the former women's and men’s gymnasium (X1X.)
- the building of the Azerbaijan Agricultural Academy / in this building, in May 1918, held the first meeting of the National Government of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan
- the Caravanserai (X1X c.) in the center of the city.
- Old Gate (XVIII c.)
2. The building of "Bottle House" ( which was built at the 1960-th. )
3. State Historical and Cultural Reserve "Old Ganja":
- the remains of the fortified walls of the medieval city (XI-XII centuries.)
- The remains of the old bridges (XI-XII centuries.)
- A mosque and other buildings (XIV-XVII centuries.)
- Ancient walls and gates (XVII-XVIII centuries.)
- Millstone (XII century.)
- The remains of baths (XVI c.)
- The mausoleum (XVII-XIX cc.)
- The remains of the fortress of Ganja (XVII c.)
4. The building former winery " Forer" in the Gey-Gel city
5. Ancient architectural sites in Gay Gel:
- "Ag korpu” “(white bridge “XII century.) on the south side of the city and the bridge of XVI c.
1. Archaeological excavations at the so-called "Uch Tepe" - the Royal burial mounds(beginning of period bronze)
2. Pottery kiln (VII c.)
3. Necropolis (VII-IX cc..) and (XI-XIII cc.)
4. Craft quarter (VII-XII cc.)
5. A set of craft workshops "Kharabat Yori» (IX-XIII cc.)
6. Ancient burial mounds (Late Bronze Age), in the north-west of the country
7. Carvan seray palace (XV c.)
8. Market place (XVI-XVII cc.)
9. The ruins of the palace of the ruler of the city (XV c.).
|Ethnographic villages centers, shopping malls and oriental bazaars|
1. Excursion to Gey- Gel (former Helenendorf - the settlement of German colonists
of Baden-Württemberg in X1X -XX cc.)
2. Ethnographic excursion to one of the mountain villages of Gey- Gol region (Zurnabad, Tyulyallyar or Azgilli) - a place of settlement ethnographic group of Azerbaijan people - "Ayrum."
1. Natural Reserve "Gey- Gel ":
a) Lake’s: Gey- gel and Maral- gel/ walking tour /
b) Lake’s: Zyali -gel, Ag- gel, Shamly- gel, Ordak -gel and the Gabarrydag mountain (2031 m) / walking tour /
c) the lake's: Gara, Ayna-gel and the Big Stone - Kechyaldag (valley and the mountain h-2400 m./ walking tour /
2. Paleontological tour to the burial site of the ancient fossil mollusks
"Endoterraks" north of the village Adjikend.
3. Geological excursion in and around the Adjikend village ( the old
field ornamental stone "Agate"), and to the around of mountain village Chiragdara (deposits of pyrite).
4. Excursion to the fish farm near the village of Chaykend in the Gey -Gel area.
|Museums and exhibitions|
1. Historical museum in Ganja сity
2. Historical museum in Gey-Gel city
3. The crutches museum in Naftalan city
4. Historical museum in Barda city (tour from Naftalan to Barda)
1. Historical monuments of Muslim architecture in the city of Ganja:
a) Mosque: "Shah Abbas» (XVI century). "Molla Djyalil" (X1X c.), "Zyarrabi" (X1X c .), "Halfali" (X1X c .), "Shahsevenler" (1880) "Albanlar" (X1X c.), "Shyaryafhanly" (XX c.).
b) Mausoleums - "Mursyal" (X1X c.) "Djomerd-Gassab" (XII c.), "Javad Khan" (2004) and poet Nizami Ganjavi (XII-XX centuries).
2. Memorial complex "Imam Zadeh» (XVII-XIX cc.) on
territory of historical and cultural reserve "Ganja"
3.Christian monuments of architecture in the city of Ganja:
- Russian Orthodox Church - Cathedral "Alexander Nevsky" (XVIII c.)
- The Christian Church (XVII century).
- Russian Orthodox Church (1887)
- Old Christian Churchs "Anahid" and "St. Mary"
|Ganja (20 excursion objects)|
1. Survey (excursion 3-4 hours) throughout Ganja with visiting the historical of local lore museum and the Mausoleum of sheikh Nizami Genjevi.
2. Historical monuments of Muslim architecture:
a) Mosques – “Shakh Abbas” (XVI century), in the center of the city:
- “Molla Jelil” (ХIХ century);
- “Zerrabi” (ХIХ century);
- “Khelfeli” (ХIХ century);
- “Shakhsevenler” (1880);
- “Albanlar” (ХIХ century);
- “Sherefkhanly” (XX century).
b) the Mausoleums:
- “Mursel” (ХIХ century);
- “#1” (ХIХ century);
- “#2” (ХIХ century);
- “Jomerd-Gesseb” (XII century);
- “Javad khan” (2004);
- The rests of “Poet Khanakhmed khan” mausoleum (1592), “Old Ganja”district.
– “Chekek hamam” (XVI century);
- “Hamam” (ХIХ century);
- “Hamam” (ХIХ century), in the city.
d) Karvansaray (ХIХ century).
e) Ancient Gate (XVIII century).
f) Some ancient bridges in the city and in its vicinities.
3. Memorial-cult complex “Imam-zade” (XVII-XIX centuries) in territory of Historical and cultural Reserve “Ganja” in area of Tatly and Zazaly settlements.
4. Other ancient architectural monuments of the city:
- A building of former Yelizavetpol governorships (ХIХ century);
- A building of former Real school (1883);
- A building of the Puppet Theatre (a building of former cult construction of ХIХ century);
- A building of former female grammar school (ХIХ century);
- A building of former man\'s grammar school (ХIХ century);
- An ancient mill “Ucdash deyirmany” (1880);
- Russian orthodox Cathedral Temple “Alexander Nevskiy” (XVIII century);
- Christian Church (XVII century);
- Russian orthodox Church (1887);
- Ancient craft workshop of braziers “misger kerkhanasy” (ХIХ century);
- A building of “the bottle House” (XX century).
5. The state of Historical and cultural reserve “Ganja” / “Old Ganja” /: the rests of fortifications of medieval city (XI-XII centuries);
- The rests of old bridges of medieval city (XI-XII centuries);
- A mosque and other structures (XIV-XVII centuries);
- Ancient walls and a gate (XVII-XVIII centuries);
- A mill stone (XII century);
- The rests of the Bath (XVI century);
- The mausoleum (XVII-XIX centuries);
- Rests of Ganja fortress (XVII century);
- An office block (1950).
6. Archeologic objects in “Old Ganja” district:
- The potter\'s furnace (VII century);
- 2 Necropolises (VII-IX centuries) and (XI-XIII centuries);
- Craft blocks (VII-XII centuries);
- A complex of craft workshops “Kharabat yeri” (IX-XIII centuries);
- Ancient barrows (the end of an epoch of bronze);
- A medieval site of ancient settlement (XIII-XIV centuries);
- A place of karvansaray (XV century);
- A market square (XVI-XVII centuries);
- The rests of ruins of a palace of the governor of the city (XV century).
7. Ancient architectural objects in the city of Khanlar:
- “Ag Kerpu” (XII century);
- “double-drift bridge” (XVI century) in city,
- “three-drift bridge” (1896) in the bottom part of the city,
- The rests of heptahedral Albanian temple (XVIII century);
8. Ruins of two Albanian temples and medieval cemeteries around of them in area of settlements Deyirmanlar / Azad / and Yeni Zod / Kamo / in mountain-woody on the left party of gorge of the river Pandchaj near to highway “Ajikend-Gyolgyol”.
9. Excursion jeep-safari to ruins of Albanian chapel at top of Pandas mountain (2108 m.) on one-nominal northeast lateral spur of Murovdag ridge.
10. The combined (auto-foot) paleontologic excursion to a place of a burial place ancient (40-50 млн.лет) fossilized mollusks – “Endoterraks”.
11. Geological excursions in area of Ajikend settlement (old deposits of an ornamental stone “Agate”) and at mountain settlement Chiragdere / “101 Picket” / (a deposit sulfuric pyrites).
12. Ancient two-arched stone Bridge in Topalkhesenli settlement in Khanlar area.
13. The mausoleum (XVI century) in Sarygaya settlement in Khanlar area.
14. Christian church “Gabriel” (1674) in Shekhriyar / former Mirzik / settlement, and also Church in Chaykend / former Murut / settlement in Khanlar area.
15. Architectural monuments in Chaykend settlement in Khanlar region: ancient Apartment house (1750-1889):
- An ancient Christian Temple “Anakhid”;
- Ancient church “Sacred Maria”.
16. A medieval Albanian Temple, to the right of a highway “Ajikend-Gyolgyol”.
17. Excursion on fish-farming factory (fishes of sturgeon breeds) near to settlement Chajkjand in area Khanlar.
18. Places of archeological excavations in Geygol area:
- A parking lot the ancient person (mezolith-neolith).
- Ancient primitive parking the person (mezolith-neolith) on mountain Kilikdag,
- Barrows (the Iron Age).
- kurganian steppe (the period of bronze-period of iron) on coast of Kur river at Yenikend settlement;
- Ancient barrows (bronze-iron) in area of settlement Mirzik the/new name – Shekhriyar/,
- Ancient Necropolises (the end of the period of bronze-has begun of the period of iron):
- To the east from Gushgara settlement;
- To the east from Bolchaly settlement;
- To the north from Chayly settlement;
- To the south from Khanlar city.
- The rests of ruins of the Albanian chapel on mountain Surb-Hovanes (1240 m.).
19. Ethnographic excursion in Victor Kljajna-\'s house of the old resident of the city of Hanlar of a German origin (an interior of the house typical “Shwabian” south-western Germany / an ethnographic way of life and housekeeping in former German colony Khelendorf).
20. Ethnographic excursion in one of mountain settlements Hanlarskogo of area (Zurnabad, Tuleller, Azgilli) – a place of moving of ethnographic group of Azerbaijan people – “Ayrum”.