Occupying a considerably small territory, Azerbaijan has unique natural-climate features. Nine of 11 climatic zones of our planet are in the territory of Azerbaijan: from subtropics to Alpine mountains.
Climate conditions are multifarious. This is provided by the allocation of the territory at the turn of temperate zone and subtropics. That is why the annual difference of the temperatures in various regions of the republic might exceed 60 degrees centigrade.
There is no place over the world like Azerbaijan for the number of its volcanoes, their diversity and their activities.
The mud volcanoes - a unique natural phenomenon - are geological forms that developed as a result of centuries-old and frequent convulsions of nature.
Almost half of the mud volcanoes on our planet are in Azerbaijan. Therefore it isn't by chance that Azerbaijan is considered as a homeland of mud volcanoes. Most of them are on Absheron, Gobustan, South-East Shirvan.
The largest mud volcano in the Caucasus and in the world - Torgay (410 m) is situated in the south of Gobustan. The islands of Baku Achipelago Garasu, Zembil, Khara-Zira and others are of volcanic origin. Some of them are added to the UNESCO list as particularly protected natural monuments.
There are all forms of mud volcanoes: active, extinct, buried, underwater, insular, oil. Volcanic mud is rich in macro- and microelements, has highly therapeutic effect for disease of central nervous system, venereal, gynecological and other diseases. Volcanic mud is widely used for the production of cosmetology medicine.
It is not a coincidence that Azerbaijan is named "sunny country", because the amount of sunshine reaches 2900 hours a year. Sunny radiation has an impact on the formation of the climate of the Republic: from dry subtropics to temperate and cold zone. If mountainous citizens may walk in boots and sheepskin coats in spring, local fashionable women actively demonstrate the open clothes in the fresh air in the coastal fields.
Often winds also have an impact on the climate. The speed of the northern "khazri" winds sometimes reaches forty meters a second, which damages a lot of fields of the economy. However, it brings desired coolness in summer. Southern "gilavar" in winter promotes to the clear weather, in summer - dry and hot weather.
Precipitations are divided rather unevenly. Less than 200 mm of precipitations are in the southern coast of Absheron peninsula, in the southeastern Shirvan and southeastern Gobustan (foothills of Greater Caucasus), in Lankaran region - 1200 -1400 mm (sometimes up to 1700 - 1800 mm). Most rainfall appears in the cold season in Lankaran region, in the remaining regions and foothills - from April to September.
All four seasons of the year might be observed in Azerbaijan simultaneously, such that, the magnificent plants of the damp subtropics neighbor with the zone of eternal snow and ice of Shahdag and Murovdag while the forests are filled with the spring aroma in Ismayilli, Lachin, Kalbajar. Contrast this with the hot Mil, Mugan and Shirvan steppes and fog with rain over the tea and citrus plantations in the foothills of Talish and the gusty nord - khazri winds in Absheron.
The Azerbaijanis intend to sun themselves in numerous Absheron beaches in summer months - from May to September, have enough swimming in the warm gentle Caspian waters. Neither plentiful nor long snowfalls are characterized for the local winters.